Thursday, November 28, 2019
Evaluation of PEP Essay Overall I enjoyed completing the circuit training and was very pleased with the way in which the PEP developed all the different aspects of my fitness.Ã The chosen method of training and the specific exercises were relevant to the game of basketball and the level of intensity was suitable for me. The overload and progression worked well and definitely made me work hard. I now understand how to implement gradual changes to the intensity without risking injury and fatigue. I also have a better understanding of the need for adequate recovery time and the importance of a proper cool down period. Before following this PEP is used to only spend time warming up. The exercises were followed safely and the quick safety check of equipment was carried out each session.Ã The retest results how I have improved in all areas of fitness. I was particularly pleased with the vertical jump and flexibility results. These improvements have allowed me to be more effective in the matches I am playing and I am starting to make less mistakes in my passing skills. I also seem to be more effective when in a ruck situation. However I still feel I need to develop my upper body strength.Ã I found the evaluation of each session useful and will continue to do this in the future, not only for training but matches to make my goal setting more effective. We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluation of PEP specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluation of PEP specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluation of PEP specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The PEP helped my levels of motivation as I wanted to constantly strive for improvement as well as my levels of concentration. Because I was getting tired I found I had to focus on the technique and I have started to transfer this to the game situation which has helped my skill performance.Ã I will continue to incorporate circuit training into my overall programme and aim to gradually increase the work intensity, after reducing the recovery time between the circuits. The session, although demanding was actually much better than last week. I even managed to complete two circuits on the pull-up station without stopping. This may have been due to the fact I felt highly motivated as this was the last session and was very focused on completing the exercise if I could.Ã The warm-up and cool-down both went well and I really noticed aÃ difference in my flexibility over the course of the PEP.Ã Considerations for next sessionÃ Now I have actually trained properly and followed a structured training programme I think I will continue to do so. I have seen a difference in my fitness levels and enjoyed seeing the improvement.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"PersonalityÃ¢â¬ Psychology covers a vast field, and one interesting aspect of it is personality. Personality by itself involves various issues. Some of which basic aspects are Psychoanalytic, Biological, Ego, Humanistic and Interactionist which can be found in chapter fifteen. Though personality as a subject fascinates me a lot, because personality is the way people behave. I believe Behavior determines human personality and is very interesting. You can tell what one is by his behavior, and one behaves according to what place he has in society. Personality plays a big part in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s live and everyone is different and I think that is also what makes personality so interesting. I know I have learned a lot about myself over the years even though I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that my personality really has not changed much. I understand now why I act the way I do and sometimes I try work on the thinks I do not like about my personality. Like my attitude and I have very little patients. I have worked on my patients a lot and now I am starting slow down and take a breath and donÃ¢â¬â¢t get my Ã¢â¬Å"patties in a wadÃ¢â¬ . I also believe that everyone get some of there personality from there parents just because you have been around them for so long. I also think that personality can be described in many ways and it is in the eye of the beholder to choose his definition of personality. I really do enjoy this class and I think I have learned a lot about myself through this class because of the some many different personalities. Everyone in class thinks differently and I like the way we have discussions because it brings out people personalities and helps me to get to know what other people think about certain things. But I wish we could spend more time on all the topics we talk about be I know we do have lots of time.... Free Essays on Personality Free Essays on Personality Ã¢â¬Å"PersonalityÃ¢â¬ Psychology covers a vast field, and one interesting aspect of it is personality. Personality by itself involves various issues. Some of which basic aspects are Psychoanalytic, Biological, Ego, Humanistic and Interactionist which can be found in chapter fifteen. Though personality as a subject fascinates me a lot, because personality is the way people behave. I believe Behavior determines human personality and is very interesting. You can tell what one is by his behavior, and one behaves according to what place he has in society. Personality plays a big part in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s live and everyone is different and I think that is also what makes personality so interesting. I know I have learned a lot about myself over the years even though I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that my personality really has not changed much. I understand now why I act the way I do and sometimes I try work on the thinks I do not like about my personality. Like my attitude and I have very little patients. I have worked on my patients a lot and now I am starting slow down and take a breath and donÃ¢â¬â¢t get my Ã¢â¬Å"patties in a wadÃ¢â¬ . I also believe that everyone get some of there personality from there parents just because you have been around them for so long. I also think that personality can be described in many ways and it is in the eye of the beholder to choose his definition of personality. I really do enjoy this class and I think I have learned a lot about myself through this class because of the some many different personalities. Everyone in class thinks differently and I like the way we have discussions because it brings out people personalities and helps me to get to know what other people think about certain things. But I wish we could spend more time on all the topics we talk about be I know we do have lots of time.... Free Essays on Personality A Critical Analysis of A Midsummer Night's Dream By: Mandy Conway E-mail: email@example.com Mandy Conway Mrs. Guynes English 12 16 March 2000 A Critical Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s DreamÃ¢â¬ William Shakespeare, born in 1594, is one of the greatest writers in literature. He dies in 1616 after completing many sonnets and plays. One of which is Ã¢â¬Å"A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream.Ã¢â¬ They say that this play is the most purely romantic of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s comedies. The themes of the play are dreams and reality, love and magic. This extraordinary play is a play-with-in-a-play, which master writers only write successfully. Shakespeare proves here to be a master writer. Critics find it a task to explain the intricateness of the play, audiences find it very pleasing to read and watch. Ã¢â¬Å"A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s DreamÃ¢â¬ is a comedy combining elements of love, fairies, magic, and dreams. This play is a comedy about five couples who suffer through loveÃ¢â¬â¢s strange games and the evil behind the devious tricks. This play begins as These us, the Duke, is preparing to marry Hippolyta. He woos her with his sword. Hermia is in love with Lysander. Egeus, HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, forbids the relationship with Lysander and orders her to marry Demetrius. Demetrius loves Hermia, but she does not love him. On the other hand, Helena is in love with Demetrius. To settle the confusion, Theseus decides that Hermia must marry Demetrius or become a nun. In retaliation to her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s command, Hermia and Lysander run away together. Amidst all the problems in the human world, Titania and Oberon, the fairy queen and king, continually argue about their various relationships that they have taken part in. (Scott 336) Titania leaves Oberon as a result of the arguments. Oberon is hurt and wants revenge on Titania. So he tells Puck, OberonÃ¢â¬â¢s servant, to put a magic flower juice on her eyelids while she is sleeping. This potion causes the victim to desperately i...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The novel Passing by Stella Larsen - Essay Example The fall of Clare is in haziness. The readers are forced t think about the major part played Irene in the fall of Clare Redfeild . Clare consciously accompanies IreneÃ¢â¬â¢s husband Brain in tea parties. During these outings Irene notices her ability with men. She has such a magnetic ability to charm and enthrall them with her beauty, pull them through her skilful speech. Irene is sure that Clare would go after anything that she desired with disregard to the feeling of others . Ã¢â¬Å"Why to get the thing I want badly enough, I would do anything, hurt anybody, throw anything away, I am not safeÃ¢â¬ p(81). The real Irene is one who wishes to enjoy the liberal life of Clare .But she now blames herself for hiding the fact of being Black. John Bellow is also unknown about her identity. But in the curse of the time Irene notices the influence of Clare even on her own husband. To Irene, security was the most important and desired thing in life .It was clear that Irene at a moment subconsciously wished for an end to Clare. When Clare confesses about the breaking of the china tea cup to Hugwentworth that it was a mindful effort, she reveals her mind. The white tea cup is really Clare herself who has the same white ancestors and live in the world through deception. Clearly the shattering of the tea cup with its white fragments is the shadows of the impending death of Clare
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Soil strengthening of age-old-designed railway tracks - Research Paper Example Superstructure consists of rails, fastening, and sleepers, and sub-structure consists of ballast, sub-ballast, and sub-grade. This research assignment studies the functions of substructure in track operation. Railroad substructure receives dynamic load from train movement and behaves according to the principles and laws of soil mechanics. Soil performance under loading in soil mechanics is governed by two characteristics: strength and deformation (STRATIGRAPHICS n.d.). Strength refers to the shear strength properties, and deformation refers to settlement. The proper functioning of substructure is characterized by the bearing capacity which implies that shear stresses caused by the cyclic loading has to be lower than the soilÃ¢â¬â¢s undrained shear strength value, and at the same time settlement will not develop plastic behavior in the soil. After a number of years of operation, instability of both super and sub structures is caused by the shear failure and plastic settlement of sub -grade. There are many factors that may contribute to the loss of soil-strength. Among them, poor drainage, and trapped water in ballast pockets play significant roles. According to Harry Cedergreen, drainage represents a significant issue for railroad construction and maintenance; stability and low maintenance cost can only exist when adequate drainage is provided (Cedergren 1989, p. 364). Sub-grade failure in railroad jargon is called Ã¢â¬Å"soft trackÃ¢â¬ (Australian Rail Track Corporation a 2001). Soft track includes ballast failure, top formation failure, shallow sub-grade failure, embankment failure, and landslide failure. Water is one of the several contributors that cause these failures. The scope of this assignment is to study methods... The response to the cyclic loading of rail track is an interaction of superstructure and substructure. Ballast, sub-ballast, and sub-grade relates to substructure. Decades of operation bring structural changes of substructures. The sub-grades of the old existing rail tracks require rehabilitation to satisfy proper functioning and meet current technical operational standards. The scope of this assignment is to find the rehabilitation approach for the existing tracks of Australia. The solution must account that improvement of substructure by dismantling the railways is not an option due to the transport collapse, which is accompanied by financial losses. Rehabilitation of the existing railway is not a sheer issue that relates to Australia only; it is also a significant issue for the European countries, Canada, and USA. CSX Rail Line in Milstead, Alabama, USA faced excessive ballast settlement and soil pumping problems due to the poor sub-grade conditions. Moreover, Tallapoosa River run s parallel to the rail line. The rehabilitation of the track included raising the track, undercutting and removing the existing ballast, and use of filter fabric over the exposed sub-ballast, which was followed by a layer of Geogrid
Monday, November 18, 2019
Secure Computer System - Studies - Case Study Example Fire detection is very crucial therefore fire detection appliances should detect the smallest indication of fire through sparks and temperature rise. Fire suppression equipment need to be installed and should suppress the fire without damaging the server equipment. Water sprinklers are the most common fire suppression equipment. It would be better to consider other options like the use of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers (Nash, 1997, pg 23). Heating, ventilating and air conditioning as well as climate control equipment should be kept separate from the rest of the room to avoid damaging the network equipment. I would not place the ventilation equipment overhead because it would risk the server. The switch for the equipment would be placed inside the room to prevent accidental switching. Proper power at the right quality should be regulated through the use of power protection equipment. By use of reliable power supply and surge protection equipment, the power will be kept at the desired quality. Power should be safe and reliable and should not fluctuate often. The space for the equipment should be adequate enough to allow for future expansion. ... Considerations for installing additional components and intrusion detection and prevention system should be taken into consideration (Shirley, 2008, pg 34). Case Study Pg.432 Case exercise Question 1 page 432 Based on the case study, what security awareness and training posters had an impact in this incident. Pg.432 Question 1 In Amy's incident, the following security awareness posters and training documents may have contributed to it; posters requiring the immediate reporting of security problems, posters and documents requiring the practice of healthy computer security. Information and security tips on posters and documents. Company security policy documents also contributed to this incident. The following topics may also have contributed to the incident, these are; Password usage and management; this includes creation of passwords, frequency of changing the password and methods used in protection. Security training plays a pivotal and important role in preventing attacks on computer system by viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and other malicious code (Richardson, 2005, pg 2). More information that is needed in order to enhance information security is the creation of a policy poster indicating; implications of noncompliance to information security implications of receiving unknown e-mail/attachments implications of people browsing certain prohibited websites during working hours those allowed to use the web services and those who are prohibited and also stipulating penalties for those found breaching these rules and regulations Data storage and backup; data storage systems maybe centralized or decentralized. This information is placed on not only posters but also on, newsletters,
Friday, November 15, 2019
Study On The Objectives Of The Bse Sensex Finance Essay BSE SENSEX is the short form of the BSE Sensitive Index. The index is widely used to measure the performance of the Indian Stock Market. It is a Market Capitalization Weighted index of 30 stocks representing a sample of large, liquid, well established and financially sound companies. The index is widely reported in both, the domestic and international, print and electronic media and is widely used to measure the performance of the Indian stock markets. The BSE Sensex is the benchmark index of the Indian capital market and one which has the longest social memory. In fact the Sensex is considered to be the pulse of the Indian stock markets. It is the oldest index in India and has acquired a unique place in the collective consciousness of investors. Further, as the oldest index of the Indian Stock Market, it provides time series data over a fairly long period of time. One of the most important attributes of Sensex is to maintain continuity with the past i.e. to update the base year av erage. The base year value adjustment ensures that the rights issue and new capital of the index scrips do not destroy the value of the index. The day-to-day maintenance of the Sensex is done by the Bombay Stock Exchange and special care is taken to include only those scrips, which pass through several filters. The Stock Exchange, Mumbai popularly known as BSE was established in 1875 as The Native Share and Stock Brokers Association. It is the oldest one in Asia, even older than the Tokyo Stock Exchange, which was established in 1878. It is a voluntary non-profit making Association of Persons (AOP) and is the first Stock Exchange in the country to have obtained permanent recognition in 1956 from the Government of India under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. The Exchange, while providing an efficient and transparent market for trading in securities, debt and derivatives upholds the interests of the investors and ensures redressal of their grievances whether against the companies or its own member brokers. A Governing Board having 20 directors is the apex body, which decides the policies and regulates the affairs of the Exchange. The Governing Board consists of 9 elected directors, who are from the broking community (one-third of them retire every year by rotation), three SEBI nominees (Securities Exchange Board of India), six public representatives an Executive Director, Chief Executive Officer and a Chief Operating Officer. The Executive Director and the Chief Executive Officer are responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Exchange and he is assisted by the Chief Operating Officer and other Heads of Departments. OBJECTIVES The BSE Sensex is the benchmark Index of the Indian Stock Market with wide acceptance among individual investors, institutional investors and fund managers. The objectives of the index are: ÃâÃÅ" TO MEASURE MARKET MOVEMENTS Given its long history and wide acceptance, no other index matches the BSE Sensex in reflecting market movements and sentiments. Sensex is widely used to describe the mood in the Indian Stock Market. ÃâÃÅ" BENCHMARK FOR FUNDS PERFORMANCE The inclusion of the Blue chip companies and the wide and balanced industry representation in the Sensex makes it the ideal benchmark for fund managers to compare the performance of their funds. ÃâÃÅ" FOR INDEX BASED DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS Since Sensex comprises of leading companies in all the significant sectors in the economy, we believe that it will be the most liquid contract in the Indian market and will garner a pre dominant market share LISTING OF SECURITIES Listing means admission of securities to dealings on a recognized stock exchange. The securities may be of any public limited company, Central or State Government, quasi-governmental and other financial institutions/corporations, municipalities etc. The objectives of listing are mainly to: ÃâÃÅ" Provide liquidity to securities ÃâÃÅ" Mobilize savings for economic development ÃâÃÅ" Protect interest of investors by ensuring full disclosures. The Exchange has a separate Listing Department to grant approval for listing of securities of companies in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, Securities Contracts (Regulation) Rules, 1957, Companies Act, 1956, Guidelines issued by SEBI and Rules, Bye-laws and Regulations of the Exchange. SELECTION CRITERIA The criteria for selection and review of scrips for the BSE Sensex can be explained in the following manner: A. QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA 1. MARKET CAPITALIZATION: The Scrip should figure in the top 100 companies listed by market capitalization. Also market capitalization of each of the scrip should be at least. 0.5 % of the total market capitalization of the Index i.e. the minimum weight should be 0.5%. Since the BSE Sensex is a market capitalization weighted index, this is one of the primary criteria for scrip selection. (Market Capitalization would be averaged for last 6 months). 2. LIQUIDITY: a. Trading Frequency: The scrip should have been traded on each and every trading day for the last six months. Exceptions can be made for extreme reasons like scrip suspension etc. b. Number of Trades: The scrip should be among the top 150 companies listed by average number of trades per day for the last one year. c. Value of Shares Traded: The scrip should be among the top 150 companies listed by average value of shares traded per day for the last one year. d. Trading Activity: The average number of shares traded per day as a percentage of the total number of outstanding shares of the company should be greater than 0.05 % for the last year. 3. CONTINUITY: Whenever the composition of the Index is changed, the continuity of historical series of index values is re-established by correlating the value of the revised index to the old index (index before revision). The back calculation over the last one-year period is carried out and correlation of the revised index to the old index should not be less than 0.98. This ensures that the historical continuity of the index is maintained. 4. INDUSTRY REPRESENTATION: Scrip selection would take into account a balanced representation of the listed companies in the universe of BSE. The index companies should be leaders in their industry group. 5. LISTED HISTORY: The scrip should have a listing history of at least 6 months on BSE. However, the Committee may relax the criteria under exceptional circumstances. B. QUALITATIVE CRITERIA 1. SCRIP GROUP: The Scrip should preferably be from Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾AÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¸ group. 2. TRACK RECORD: The company should preferably have continuous dividend paying record or / and promoted by management having proven record. S P CNX NIFTY The NSE -50 Index was launched by the National Stock Exchange of India Limited, taking as base the closing prices of November 3, 1995 when one year of its Capital Market segment was completed. It was subsequently renamed S P CNX Nifty- with S P indicating endorsement of the Index by Standard and PoorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¸s and CNX standing for CRISIL NSE Index. The S P CNX NIFTY, also popularly known as the Nifty 50, is one of the most scientific indices in India that reflects the price movement of 50 blue- chips, large cap, liquid and highly traded stocks of 23 sectors. The Nifty is managed by India Index Services Products Ltd. (IISL). The total value of all Nifty stocks is approximately 70% of the traded value of all stocks on the NSE. Nifty stocks represent about 59% of the total market capitalization. OBJECTIVES The basic idea of this index is to ascertain the movements of the stock market as a whole by tapping the news which can affect the stock. The index also averages out the good stock specific news for a few companies and bad stock specific news for others and left with the news that is common to all stocks. The news that is common to all stocks is news about India, which is the sole purpose of NSE Nifty. According to NSE, the Index was introduced with the objectives of: 1. Reflecting market movement more accurately, 2. Providing Fund Managers with a tool for measuring portfolio returns vis-a-vis market returns, and 3. Providing a basis for introducing Index based derivatives. This paper discusses Efficient Market Hypothesis (thereby referred to as EMH), seasonalities and its implications in both advanced and emerging securities markets. EMH suggests that investors cannot expect to out perform the market consistently on a risk adjusted basis (Mayo, 2003). According to Fama (1965) who developed the Efficient Market Hypothesis, an efficient market is a market where there are a large number of rational profit-maximizers actively competing, with each trying to predict future market values of individual securities, and where important current information is almost freely available to all participants. In an efficient market, competition among the many intelligent participants leads to a situation where at any point in time, actual prices of individual securities already reflect the effects of information both on events that have already occurred and on events which, as of now, the market expects to take place in the future. In other words, in an efficient marke t at any point in time, the actual price of a security will be a good estimate of its intrinsic value. On the other hand, in an inefficient market, EMH would not hold. This suggests that existence of loop holes which could be exploited to make abnormal returns by predicting market price patterns, using past price information and insider information. These market inefficiencies, also called market anomalies have received as much research work as EMH. 2. THREE FORMS OF MARKET EFFICIENT HYPOTHESIS There are three forms of market efficiency in an informationally efficient market, where prices adjust quickly and accurately to new information (Emery et al, 2007). These forms show the degree of efficiency of security markets and attempt to answer the question of how efficient a market is. (Mayo, 2003 and Keane, 1983) 2.1 Weak Form Efficiency The weak form of EMH asserts that the current price fully reflects information contained in the past history of prices only. Stock market price information is available via most means of mass communication. Thus, investors should be unable to make superior profit from use of public information i.e. daily stock market prices or company results available to all. Again, many investment bankers and financial analysts devise investment strategies using technical analysis of past data to outperform the market and their competitors, in satisfying their clients demand for superior returns. Transaction costs of trading, investment advice, analysis and commissions when considered, affects the investors return, especially for investors who continue to use traditional full service brokers (Mayo,2003) 2.2 Semi Strong Form Efficiency The semi strong form of EMH, according to Brealey et al (2006), prices reflect not just past prices but all other published information, such as you might get from reading the financial press. Similarly, Fama (1969) defined it as publicly available information with examples of announcements of annual earnings and stock splits. Semi-strong form of EMH asserts that current prices fully reflects public knowledge about the underlying companies and that efforts to acquire and analyze this knowledge cannot be expected to produce superior investment results (Lorie Hamilton 1973). 2.3 Strong Form Efficiency The strong form of EMH suggests that share prices fully reflect not only published information but all relevant information including data not yet publicly available. It also asserts that not even those with privileged information (insiders) can often make use of it to secure superior investment results (Lorie Hamilton 1973). These three forms of EMH are not independent of one another. For the market to be efficient in the semi-strong form, it must also be efficient in the weak form, because if price movements follow a predictable path which the perceptive observer can exploit profitably, the implication is that the price has reacted slowly or capriciously to published information. Likewise, for the market to be efficient in the strong form it must also be efficient at the other two levels, otherwise, the price would not capture all relevant information (Keane, 1983). He went on to state that for an inefficiency (seasonality) to be operationally significant it must be exploitable. Keane (1983) analyses four criteria an exploitable inefficiency should satisfy, these are: (a) it should be authentic supportable by properly conducted statistical research. (b) It should be identifiable-not just strategies or people that beat the market but concrete and verifiable evidence. (c) It should be material- inefficie ncies are not exploitable unless they are sufficient to compensate for the costs and risks of pursuing them. (d) It should be persistent-the value of inefficiency is not just a record of its existence in the past but that it will continue to exist in future. These criteria are very important in understanding the different types of market seasonality or anomaly, their existence, prevalence and their implications for the EMH. 3. SEASONALITIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EMH Seasonalities, as the name suggests are time regularities, patterns or predictable trends. In the financial securities market, seasonalities would suggest predictable time patterns in the behaviour of the stock market-volume of stock trades, stock returns etc. If it does exist, then investors can exploit the market for superior returns in all financial securities markets. Seasonalities as defined by Alagidede (2008) are evidences of market efficiency anomalies. These are also known as seasonal anomalies (calendar effects) which may be loosely referred to as the tendency for financial returns to display systematic patterns at certain times of the day, week, month or year. Calendar effects include: January effect, the month of the year effect, monthly effect, holiday effect, Monday effect / day of the week effect, weekend effect, turn of the year effect etc. (Guo and Wang, 2007). Discussing a few of them will be worthwhile. 3.1 The January Effect The January effect is where returns are much higher during the month of January than any other month, i.e. where investors can earn a disproportionately high amount of the total annual return available from both fixed income assets and equity in January Clare et al (1995). Most research conducted in developed economies confirm the presence of the January effect, although, in more recent times they seem to be disappearing. Keim (1983) and Reinganum (1983) show that the January effect and the size effect are highly interrelated. Blume and Stambaugh (1983) discovered, after controlling for upward biases in small stock returns, the size effect was only significant in January. An extensive amount of studies has gone into the month of the year effect. Mills and Coutts (1995) concluded that stock returns are much higher in the month of January in the UK using FTSE indices between January 1986 and October 1992(FTSE 100,Mid 250 and 350 indices). Gultekin and Gultekin (1983) using 17 countries also found evidence that the January return is much higher than other months returns, Alagidede (2008) tested for month of the year effect in emerging African markets and concluded that the January effect is positive and significant for Nigeria, Egypt and Zimbabwe. However Guo and Wangs (2007) study on the emerging Chinese stock market shows that there is no significant January effect in Chinese stock market. Many researchers have sought the cause of the January effect and arrived at a number of causes which include: tax-loss selling hypothesis, provision of new information at the end of a fiscal year, firm size had the significant higher risk in the beginning of the year than the rest of the year and the systematic tendencies for closing prices to be recorded at the bid in the last traded in December and at the ask in early January (Guo and Wangs, 2007) 3.2 The Holiday Effect The definition of a holiday is relative, subjective and would vary for different countries and their capital markets e.g. Christian, Muslim, public holidays etc. One definition of a holiday looks at days, other than Saturday or Sunday, upon which the market is closed (Alagidede, 2008). Ariel (1990) used US data reports to show that the trading day prior to holidays on average displays high positive returns, this result was supported by Kim and Park (1994) for US, Japan and UK .However, Cadsby and Ratner (1992) using UK data concluded that the holiday effect was insignificant This conclusion was challenged by Mills and Coutts (1995) in their study of calendar effects using London stock FTSE indices. Coutts et al (2000) showed that the holiday effect is present in their study of the Athens Stock Exchange (ASE), although, no similar study has been undertaken on the ASE which would have been used as a basis of comparison. Their results were consistent with international evidences. 3.3 The Weekend Effect One of the most prevalent anomalies appears to be a weekend effect where stocks display significantly lower returns over the period between Fridays close and Mondays close (Arsad and Coutts, 1995). Jaffe and Westerfield (1985) examined the daily stock market returns in 4 international stock markets including, the London stock Exchanges FT30 over the period 1950 1982 and found a significant weekend effect. Consistent with Jaffe and Westerfield (1985) findings, Condoyanni et al (1987) also found the existence of the weekend effect in the UK when examining the FT30 over the period 1979 1994. Arsad and Coutts (1996, 1997) also found the weekend effect in the FT30 from the period 1935 1994, although according to their research the effect was found not to be persistent. Board and Sutcliffe (1988) examined the weekend effect in the Financial Times all share index over the period 1962 1986 and found clear evidence of a weekend effect over the sample period, with the significance of the e ffect diminishing over time. This is consistent with later research done by Dubois and Louvet (1996) on the same index for the period 1969 1992, in which negative returns was found on Monday, which are compensated by abnormal positive returns on Wednesday. Agrawal and Tandon (1994) examined the weekend effect in 18 countries including the UK and found a negative Monday return when the market rises in the previous week. Furthermore, they found the effect disappearing in 1980. Mills and Coutts (1995) found evidence of the existence of the weekend effect in the UK when the FTSE 100, Mid 250, 350 and certain of the accompanying industry baskets was examined for the period from 1986 to 1992. Ajayi et al (2004) investigated day of the week stock return anomaly, using major market stock indices in eleven eastern European emerging markets for the period 1994 2002. The results show negative and positive Monday returns in six and five emerging markets respectively, of which only two of the six show negative Monday returns and one of the five show positive Monday returns and were statistically significant. Choudhry (2000) investigated the day of the week effect in seven emerging Asian stock markets from 1990 1995 and found significant weekend effect in some of the markets considered. 3.4 The Day of the Week Effect: The day of the week effect refers to existence of a pattern on the part of stock returns, whereby these returns are linked to the particular day of the week (Poshakwale 1996). The last trading days of the week, particularly Friday, are characterised by substantially positive returns while Monday, the first trading day of the week, differs from other days, even producing negative returns (Cross 1973, Lakonishok Levi (1982), Rogalski (1984), Keim Stambaugh( 1984) and Harris (1986). In other words, this effect relates to the difference in returns across different days of the week with the variance in stock returns found to be largest on Mondays and lowest on Fridays (Raj Kumari 2006). It should be noted that the day of the week effect in emerging capital markets has not been extensively researched and the presence of such an effect would mean that equity returns are not independent of the day of the week effect against random walk theory (Poshakwale 1996). On the other hand, the inte rnational evidence of the report has been somewhat mixed. Dubois and Louvert (1996) find returns to be lower for the beginning of the week (but not necessarily Monday) for European countries, Hong Kong and Canada. However, it was observed that the anomaly disappeared in the USA for the most recent periods. Agrawal and Tandon (1994), find negative Monday returns in nine countries and negative Tuesday returns in eight countries (out of a total of nineteen countries). Several theories have been put forward regarding specific time periods anomalies in the capital market. The day of the week effect has been explained by examining various kinds of measurement errors such as: settlement period hypothesis; which attributes the day of the week effect to the settlement dates with prices higher on the pay-in days as compared to the pay-out days. Calendar time(trading time) hypothesis; implies that since Monday returns are spread across three days (Saturday, Sunday Monday), the returns should be three times as high as other days. The negative Monday returns go against this reasoning, which lead to the proposed theory that returns should be proportional to trading time as opposed to calendar time (Raj Kumari 2006). Information flow hypothesis postulates that the difference in information flow over the weekend compared to other days of the week causes the Monday effect (Dyl Maberly 1988). Often companies hold back negative information till the weekend, g iving the investors two non-trading days to absorb the information before reacting with trading activity. Consequently, all sell orders get pushed to Monday, thereby giving negative returns (Raj Kumari 2006). Retail investor trading hypothesis, suggests that negative Monday returns could be the result of individual investor trading activity (Brooks Kim 1997). It was found that trading activity is significantly lower on Monday for large size trades, while small size trades have a higher percentage of sell orders on Monday as compared to other days of the week. 3.5 Trading Month Effect The trading month effect also called the turn-of -the-month effect which was first documented by Ariel(1987) using US data shows that returns are only positive around the beginning and during the first half of trading months, whereas during the second half they are on average zero. This study was replicated by Jaffe and Westerfield (1989), for the UK, Japan, Canada and Australia, in their study. However, only Australia shows a significant monthly effect. A conflicting evidence for the UK in a report from Cadsby and Ratner (1992) shows a significant trading month effect in the FT 500. Ariel (1988) offered three explanations for the trading month effect which include: new information concerning corporate cash flows, changes in risk free rate and changes in the preferences of market participants leading to variation in demand for securities which cannot be offset by supply. Mills and Coutts (1996) investigated the this effect using a large sample of daily returns from the Financial Time s Industrial Ordinary Share Index and found that a trading month effect is present but exists for a much shorter period than has been documented by previous studies for both the US and the UK. The information release hypothesis of French(1980) was accepted as an explanation of the trading month effect, only if the unexpected release of good and bad news has a tendency to fall in the final and first days of trading months, securities would be riskier during these periods , thus justifying the higher first half returns. Context of India: Published studies that have examined calendar effects in the Indian stock market appear to be limited. Kaur (2004) reports that few studies have examined the day-of-the-week effect in the Indian stock market, and further notes the absence of studies that examine monthly seasonality in the Indian stock market. Kaur utilized two Indian stock indexes, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) 30 index and the National Stock Exchange (NSE) SP CNX Nifty stock index, to examine the day-of-the-week effect and the monthly effect. Kaur did not find a January effect in the Indian stock market, but did find that March and September generated substantially lower returns, whereas February and December generated substantial positive returns. Sarma (2004) adds that very few studies have examined calendar effects during the post reform era in the Indian stock market. Sarma investigated the BSE 30, the BSE 100, and the BSE 200 stock indexes to detect the day-of-the-week effect. Utilizing Kruskal-Wallis test statistics, Sarma concluded that the Indian stock market exhibited some seasonality in daily returns over the period January 1, 1996 to August 10, 2002. Bodla and Jindal (2006) examined several seasonal anomalies in the Indian stock market utilizing the SP CNX Nifty Index for the period January 1998 to August 2005. For the monthly effect, they did find some significant differences for their sub-period, January 2002 to August 2005. However, they were unable to find any significant differences among individual months. In an earlier study, Ignatius (1998) examined seasonality in a BSE index and in the Standard and Poors 500 stock index for the period 1979-1990. Ignatius found that December generated the highest mean returns , and that April and June generated high returns in the Indian stock index. Some studies examine seasonality in the Indian stock market as part of a broader analysis of seasonality in several major emerging stock markets. For example, Fountas and Segredakis (2002) investigated monthly seasonal anomalies in eighteen major emerging equity markets, including the Indian stock market. They examined the monthly effect for the period January 1987 to December 1995. For the Indian stock market, they found August returns were significantly greater than April, May, October and November returns. However, they did not find evidence consistent with hypothesized tax-loss selling in the Indian stock market, as the tax-year in India commences in April. Yakob, Beal and Delpachitra (2005) examined seasonal effects in ten Asian Pacific stock markets, including the Indian stock market, for the period January 2000 to March 2005. They state that this is a period of stability and is therefore ideal for examining seasonality as it was not influenced by the Asian financial crisis of the late nineties. Yakob, et al., concluded that the Indian stock market exhibited a month-of-the-year effect in that statistically significant negative returns were found in March and April whereas statistically significant positive returns were found in May, November and December. Of these five statistically significant monthly returns, November generated the highest positive returns whereas April generated the lowest negative returns. Evidence of monthly seasonality in the Indian stock market is somewhat mixed. This may be, in part, a consequence of the fact that the Indian economy is in transition and is therefore constantly evolving, supporting the notion that further research into these calendar effects in the Indian stock market is warranted.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Aliza Lichy Ms. Hoff American Government 1/15/2014 The Importance of a Strong Middle Class Having a strong middle class indicates that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy will be effervescent and its economy will be beneficial, which will lead to the notion of precisely what America is all about. The setback is that the weakness of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s middle class not only harms those affected by it, but all other individuals living in the U.S as well. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s incomes are deteriorating or weakening, while items necessary to live increase in cost, and the probabilities of falling behind are beginning to develop. It is important that the gap between the upper class and the lower class is condensed, this way a strong middle class will be emitted. The modern persona of middle class citizens in America derives from the post World War II era. In 1944, the GI Bill was created to provide returning veterans with money to cover college, business, and home mortgages. This money gave servicemen the opportunity to afford a home of their own for the first time ever resulting in the vast pr oliferation of residential construction. This was how American subdivision commenced (Suddath). The fault in the subdivision initiated when the strong gap between the upper class and the lower class formed due to income inequality, race and gender disparities, education, and technology. The American government is working to rejuvenate the middle class and shorten the gap between the upper and lower class. In 2012, Vice President Joe Biden stated, "America's middle class is hurting, it is our charge to get the middle class Ã¢â¬â the backbone of this country Ã¢â¬â up and running again" (Ã¢â¬Å"A StrongÃ¢â¬ n.d.). The revitalization of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s middle class is possible. In order to do so, the costs ... ...ny other ways that income is received consistently. Race and gender disparities are also a cause of the gap. The Ã¢â¬Å"gender earnings gapÃ¢â¬ in America as well as the Ã¢â¬Å"Gender Wage GapÃ¢â¬ are other names for the difference in a male and females income year round. This information is gathered and used by economists and federal agencies as part of the current population survey. In 2010 the median income of year round workers was $42,800 for men, compared to $34,700 for women. The ratio of money earned was 0.81, reaching a somewhat higher ratio than that of 2008. The female-to-male earnings ratio of 0.81 means that, in 2009, female FTYR workers earned 19% less than male FTYR workers. The determination of the difference in income does not include the experience, education, skill, qualification, and more of the males and females as long as its full time (Ã¢â¬Å"Income inequalityÃ¢â¬ ).
Monday, November 11, 2019
Core Assessment Jessica Ferguson PS 206 Introduction to Guidance and Counseling Abstract This core assessment will be my understanding of the concepts that I have learned in this course. I will define and give examples about the different therapy techniques that I have learned about. I will show that I can adequately explain that I am knowledgeable in my understanding of confidentiality and ethics in counseling. 1. (a) Empathic understanding is when a therapist correctly understands the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, feelings and meanings from the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view.When the therapist is able to look at the clients point of view it tells the client that his/or her point has value and the client feels accepted. Example: Client: I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why my husband wants to come to therapy now; we have never been able to communicate. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bother me anymore. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve accepted it, I wish he could. Therapist: Coning to therapy now doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make much sense to you. Maybe you used to have feeling about your lack of communication with your husband, but it sound like you feel pretty numb about the whole situation now. b) Unconditional positive regard is when a client is able to talk about their thoughts and feelings without having to do anything in particular to earn the therapists understanding. This is done when the therapist accepts the client unconditionally and does not pass judgment. (c)Transference is when a client projects feelings or attitudes from the past onto the therapist.Example: When a female client begins to treat her female therapist with disdain and begins to close off from therapy because the female therapist reminds her of her mother that was overbearing and mean to her. d) Anxiety is a feeling that people experience in many different ways. Some people may feel nervous, anxious, and fearful. Most of the time anxiety is normal and a good part of our ability to deal with the world. However, anxiety can become a problem for some people if it becomes excessive and begins to interfere with our daily lives. Example: Normal anxiety would be if someone had a big project due at work and the good anxiety may push us to prepare more before you present your project. An xample of excessive anxiety is when a woman has to fly on an airplane and she begins to get extremely nervous and sick to her stomach and she begins to feel dizzy. She does not get on the plane because she had experienced excessive anxiety. (e) Projection is when a client blames other people for their actions. Example: Sandy is holding an expensive glass vase and Joe is trying to get his jacket on, in the meantime, Sandy drops the vase and screams at Joe, Ã¢â¬Å"See what you made me do! I dropped the vase because you were taking too long to put on your coat.Sandy blamed Joe for dropping the vase. (f) Irrational beliefs. As we develop we form beliefs about ourselves, others and the world. Most of the time our beliefs are truthful, healthy, and rationa l. However, through events and unfortunate circumstances we begin to develop false, unhealthy, and irrational beliefs about ourselves, others and the world. Example: A client that thinks that she has to be perfect in every way to please everyone and if she is not perfect in every way then no one will love her. 2. (a). Behavior therapy and person-centered therapyBehavior therapy believes that our behaviors are learned and that we are products of our environment. The client and therapist both take a very active role in learning more desired behaviors. Person- centered therapy believes that the client is their own best authority and they are capable of fulfilling their won potential for growth with minimal direction from the therapist. The behavior therapist will set goals, treatment plans and expected outcomes up front and does not believe that the therapist has to be overly warm with the client.A person-centered therapist will allow the client to decide what their own goals and treat ment plan will be and also believes that it is an important part of therapy to have the therapist is as open and warm as possible. Person Ã¢â¬âcentered therapy places more emphasis on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s expressing and experiencing their feelings. Behavior therapy believes that people have to learn new behaviors. (b). Family and Psychoanalytic therapy Family therapy focuses on the fact that we are part of a family and that we each play a role in each other lives.Change happens with in relationships in the family not just one person. Family therapy is usually brief. The psychoanalytic approach focuses only on one person and change occurs within their own personality. Psychoanalytic approach can take several years to complete. The family therapist has to be able to listen and not pass judgment on any of the family members; the therapist must be open, honest and warm with everyone in the group. The psychoanalytic therapist does not believe that you should share any personal experien ces or their reaction with their clients.They believe that they should listen and analyze. 3. Part 1 (a). It is highly unethical to pursue a romantic relationship with a client during therapy. It is the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical duty to help the client with his or her problems not to add to them. Corey (2009), states that becoming emotionally or sexually involved with a current client is unethical, unprofessional, and illegal. As to a former client, a romantic relationship is unethical because the therapist already knows very personally and intimate details of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the therapist could use that to their advantage.Part 2 (a). Confidentiality in counseling is very important in gaining trust from the client. The client needs to know that what they are discussing in therapy does not leave the room. But the client needs to know that confidentially does not mean keeping secrets. The client should know that confidentially may be broken if they client is going to har m themselves or someone else. The therapist needs to be discussing the fact that confidentially has boundaries and the client has to understand what those boundaries are before counseling begins.The counselor should provide written information on important aspects of therapy at the beginning of counseling, such as what the boundaries of confidentiality are, payments, complaints, ectÃ¢â¬ ¦ Part 2 (b) Ã¢â¬Å"Duty to warnÃ¢â¬ would be necessary if I had a client that was 14 years old and she disclosed to me that her step-father had been touching her sexually. I would have a duty to warn the proper authorities because she is a minor. The ethical issue involved would be that I would have to break confidentiality of my patient by disclosing to outside personÃ¢â¬â¢s what we iscussed. Another example of duty to warn would be if I had a client that told me that he hated his co-workers and that he was going to shoot them. I would have to break confidentiality by contacting the authoriti es and letting them know that this person was a serious threat to others. Part 2 (c) Ethical standards are important in counseling because there has to be a professional standard for appropriate behavior, professional expectations and preventing harm to clients.When you are a profession where the therapist and clients relationship is built on trust, the therapist should engage in conduct that is safe and non-threatening to the client, so that the client can get the emotional and psychological healing that they deserve. 4. I could apply REBT therapy to my life because this therapy is very direct and challenges you to do something rather than just sitting and talking about problems. I have a problem saying no to people. I feel that I should help everyone when I am asked and if I just have to say no I feel very shameful and guilt ridden.I think that REBTÃ¢â¬â¢s method of disputing my irrational beliefs would help me. It could help me learn to ask myself, Ã¢â¬Å"Why must I say yes all of the time? and Ã¢â¬Å"what is the worst thing that could happen if I say no?. I also think that REBTÃ¢â¬â¢s method of doing homework would help me too. It could help me to put myself in situations where I would have to say no. And REBTÃ¢â¬â¢s shame attacking exercise would also help me. I feel very shameful when I have to say no to someone. This method would have me to do things that I would feel shameful dong and by doing those things the feelings of shame would eventually disappear or not be such a big deal anymore.I would also benefit from Gestalt therapy. I think that this therapy could benefit me by helping me to ask for help and to give me more awareness of myself. I have a huge problem asking anyone for help. I think that the empty chair technique would assist me to be able to tell my mother that I needed help when I was younger but I did not want to ask her for it because I did not want to bother her because she was always so busy. I would also use the rehearsal techn ique. The rehearsal technique would help me by giving me practice saying out loud that I need help. 5. a) Low self-esteem Ã¢â¬â I think that behavioral cognitive therapy would be the best method for low self-esteem. CBT helps a person to diminish negative beliefs about themselves; it helps the person to establish and strengthen more positive beliefs, and encourages the person to learn how to accept themselves for who they are. Some of the techniques used in CBT that would be helpful for a person with low self-esteem. One technique would be trying to direct the client to more positive strengths and qualities, the client would have to write down everyday what their positive qualities are.Another technique would be to have the client to look at the past and present to find out what or who is helping the client to support negative beliefs about themselves. Another technique would to be to have the client to re-evaluate their dysfunctional assumptions about themselves and begin to for mulate new more realistic alternatives. I think that the psychoanalytic approach may not work the best for someone with low self-esteem because it focuses mainly on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s past and does not really focus on present situations.A person with low self-esteem may need a therapist that is accepting and warm, the psychoanalytic therapist does not believe that the client should be treated with very much warmth. And this approach can be a very long process. (b). Phobias Ã¢â¬â Behavior therapy would be the best approach for a person with a phobia. Behavior therapy focuses on, Ã¢â¬Å"observable behaviors, current determinates of behavior, learning experiences that promote change, tailoring treatment strategies to individual treatment and change the problemÃ¢â¬ (Corey, 2009).Some of the methods that the behavior therapist would use with a client with a phobia would be exposure therapies. Exposure therapies are for helping client to treat their phobias and the bad responses to those phobias. The therapist would try In vivo exposure with the client, by exposing the client to their actual phobia. The therapist could also use flooding. The therapist could have the client to imagine the phobia or have the client to experience the phobia for an extended period of time allowing for the fear to diminish on its own.I think that the least effective therapy for a person with a phobia would be person-centered therapy. Person Ã¢â¬â centered therapy focuses on the person, not their phobia. A person with a phobia wants to get rid of it, not just talk about it. (c) Marital problems would best be worked on through family systems therapy. Family systems therapy believes that we can be understood when we can be observed with our families. Its focus is on each person, but it also focuses on how each person interacts with one another. I would use structural- strategic family therapy.This method helps to reduce problems and set boundaries and helps to define power and con trol. I think that psychoanalytic therapy may not work well with marital problems because this therapy is based too much on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s past and early development. The couple may want to focus on the present and get their problems solved quickly. 6. Three counseling and guidance models. Gestalt therapy emphasizes awareness and personal responsibility and it adopts a holistic approach giving equal awareness to mind and body. It also believes that the client should not focus in the past or the future but on the present.Gestalt therapy believes that we have unfinished business. Unfinished business is what happens when you have feelings that are left unresolved. Those unresolved feelings show up later in present day life causing emotional upheaval. Gestalt therapy does not believe that there a specific methods to therapy that should be followed. The gestalt therapist may use experiments in the course to therapy. One of the exercises is the rehearsal exercise. This allows the clien t to rehearse what their feelings are. Another exercise would be the internal dialogue exercise.This exercise allows the client to express out load what they have been telling only themselves. Adlerian therapy believes that people posses an innate tendency toward completions or wholeness and that people strive for superiority to compensate for feelings of inferiority. It also believes that people have the ability to freely shape their own behavior and personality. It believes that humans have their own unique style of life that include a personÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, self-concepts, feelings for others and attitude toward the world.Adlerian therapy has several techniques that it employs during therapy. One technique is the life style assessment, which allows the therapist to identify what needs to be worked on during therapy and to identify successes and mistakes in the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The adlerian therapist also uses encouragement as a powerful technique in therapy. Encouragement is used to build a relationship and to help facilitate client change. A therapist may also use role playing, this gives the client an opportunity to add missing experience into their lives and to explore and practice new behaviors.The psychoanalytic approach believes that all behavior and mental processes reflect constant and often unconscious struggles within people. These usually involve conflicts between our need to satisfy basic biological instincts, for example, for food, sex or aggression. The psychoanalytic therapist may use techniques such as free association where the client says anything that comes to mind. And dream analysis to find links in the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and behaviors and then interpret the dreams in terms of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems.References Corey,G. (2009). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (8th. Edition). Belmont,CA.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Valley of Fear is a work of fiction written by Sir Author Conan Doyle. It takes place in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. The story describes the accounts of a man by the names of Jack Douglas, McMurdo, and Birdie Edwards. The man by these previously mentioned names is a detective following an evil organization entitled the Ã¢â¬Å"Eminent Order of FreemanÃ¢â¬ . Birdie Edwards is a Pinkerton detective, which is an elite group of detectives in the world. Edwards tracks the Ã¢â¬Å"Eminent Order of FreemanÃ¢â¬ to the Vermissa Valley and lives there under the name of McMurdo. Birdie Edwards eventually traps the evil men of the organization and puts them in jail. However, after he moves to England to settle down with his wife, Ted Baldwin, who was a man of which Birdie Edwards sent to jail, attempts to murder Edwards who is under the name of Jack Douglas. During the skirmish between Edwards and Baldwin, Edwards kills Baldwin in self-defense. Throughout EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢s adventures, he uses many techniques that are used today in the detective field of work. One detective technique Birdie Edwards uses is Ã¢â¬Å"going under coverÃ¢â¬ . In order for Birdie Edwards to be successful on his mission to take the Ã¢â¬Å"Eminent Order of FreemanÃ¢â¬ down, he must get involved in their society. Edwards does this by having a forged recommendation from his base in Chicago. However, although Birdie Edwards is in this evil organization, he does not take part in any of the activities. Instead of doing these evil things, Edwards makes the society think he is one of them just by his psychological thinking. One technique that Edwards uses is the changing of the name he goes by. Throughout the novel Edwards uses three different names including Birdie Edwards, McMurdo, and Jack Douglas. Changing identities are very important in operating Ã¢â¬Å"under coverÃ¢â¬ . Especially if one changes his or her name in the 1800s, then basically no one will know who one is because news did not tra... Free Essays on The Valley Of Fear Free Essays on The Valley Of Fear The Valley of Fear is a work of fiction written by Sir Author Conan Doyle. It takes place in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. The story describes the accounts of a man by the names of Jack Douglas, McMurdo, and Birdie Edwards. The man by these previously mentioned names is a detective following an evil organization entitled the Ã¢â¬Å"Eminent Order of FreemanÃ¢â¬ . Birdie Edwards is a Pinkerton detective, which is an elite group of detectives in the world. Edwards tracks the Ã¢â¬Å"Eminent Order of FreemanÃ¢â¬ to the Vermissa Valley and lives there under the name of McMurdo. Birdie Edwards eventually traps the evil men of the organization and puts them in jail. However, after he moves to England to settle down with his wife, Ted Baldwin, who was a man of which Birdie Edwards sent to jail, attempts to murder Edwards who is under the name of Jack Douglas. During the skirmish between Edwards and Baldwin, Edwards kills Baldwin in self-defense. Throughout EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢s adventures, he uses many techniques that are used today in the detective field of work. One detective technique Birdie Edwards uses is Ã¢â¬Å"going under coverÃ¢â¬ . In order for Birdie Edwards to be successful on his mission to take the Ã¢â¬Å"Eminent Order of FreemanÃ¢â¬ down, he must get involved in their society. Edwards does this by having a forged recommendation from his base in Chicago. However, although Birdie Edwards is in this evil organization, he does not take part in any of the activities. Instead of doing these evil things, Edwards makes the society think he is one of them just by his psychological thinking. One technique that Edwards uses is the changing of the name he goes by. Throughout the novel Edwards uses three different names including Birdie Edwards, McMurdo, and Jack Douglas. Changing identities are very important in operating Ã¢â¬Å"under coverÃ¢â¬ . Especially if one changes his or her name in the 1800s, then basically no one will know who one is because news did not tra...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
One More Reason Why You Shouldn't Kill Bugs As a bug lover, Im always trying to convince other people to stop killing every six-legged critter that comes within ten feet. Its not just about my personal interest in insects. There are a lot of good reasons why you shouldnt kill bugs: Insects were here first, by over 300 million years. Technically, were on their turf. Insects killed the dinosaurs. What if T. Rex was still wandering around here, eating small children at will?*Other things eat insects, like birds and lizards and my cat.If you kill a good insect, youll wind up with more bad insects than you can possibly kill. Then youll be sorry.Some insects do essential jobs that Americans wont do, like pollinating flowers. A gentleman from Eatontown, NJ just demonstrated a whole new reason why you shouldnt kill bugs - you might just blow yourself to kingdom come. Isias Vidal Maceda attempted a little DIY extermination in his kitchen by spraying an unnamed brand of bug killer, only to have the chemical ignite an explosion. While he did succeed in eliminating the pests, he also eliminated 80% of his apartment and 100% of his eyebrows. * - In the interest of accurate reporting, I must admit that this particular statement might be a slight exaggeration. Not the part about insects killing the dinos, that parts true. According to Dinosaur Bob (Guide to Dinosaurs), the scuttlebutt among paleontologists today is that Tyrannosaurus Rex may have been an enormous sloth of a dino, incapable of pursuing and capturing small children.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Adversarial and inquisitorial criminal justice - Essay Example There are two systems that are utilized in the administration of criminal justice: 1) the adversarial system (also called accusatorial), and 2) the inquisitorial system. This paper aims to present the difference between the two systems in relation but not limited to the purpose, who are the parties involved, what are role of the parties involved, and the rules involved in the criminal procedure towards the attainment of their aim.Once a crime has been committed, the criminal justice is initiated by the filing of the complaint or criminal action by the victim (called the plaintiff in the complaint) to the police or to the prosecution, against the accused (called the defendant in the complaint). The different steps or procedures undertaken from the filing of the criminal complaint, trial by the court of the case, and to the conviction or non-conviction of the plaintiff is called the criminal procedure. After the complaint has been filed, the next step in the criminal procedure depends on the country of the court where the case was filed. In England and Wales and other common law countries like the United States of America for example, criminal proceedings are sometimes referred to as an adversarial system. 1 In this system, parties to a controversy, develop and present their arguments, gather and submit evidence, call and question witnesses, and control the process within the confines of certain rules and regulations.2 On the other hand, the inquisitorial system which is employed on the continent of Europe among most (but not all) systems of civil law, the conduct of investigating the case, gathering of evidences, and questioning of witnesses is the sole responsibility of the judge of the case.3 While the judge or jury in the adversarial system is a passive recipient of information4, which means that he will only know the facts and arguments of the case during trial, the judge/s play/s much more active roles in the criminal process in the inquisitorial system that include investigating, collecting of evidences, and questioning of witnesses.5 The most striking differences between the two can be found in criminal trials. In the Anglo-American adversary system, the parties to a dispute (plaintiff and defendant), or their advocates (prosecutor and defense counsel), square off against each other and assume roles that are strictly separate and distinct from that of the decision maker that is usually a judge or a jury.6 Each party has to develop and present arguments supported by proofs. In the United States for example, the prosecutor (counsel of the state and in behalf of the plaintiff) will be the first one to present his arguments and evidences to support his arguments. His purpose is usually to prove and convince the judge that the defendant (or the accused) really committed the crime and should be penalized. After which, the defense counsel will also present his arguments and evidences to prove the innocence of his client (the defendant). After the presentation of arguments and evidences by parties, the direct examination and cross-examination follows. The prosecution and the defense counsel will have the opportunity to examine the evidences and witnesses presented by the adverse party to illicit further information and to determine the veracity and truthfulness of the evidences presented. The adversary process is governed by strict rules of evidence and procedure that allows both sides equal opportunity to argue their cases and to ensure that the decision of the judge is based solely on the evidences presented.7 If both of the parties already rested their case, meaning when direct, redirect, and cross-examinations are over, it is where the function of the judge enters. The judge should decide based from the merits of the case presented before him, whether to convict the defendant-accused or to set him free.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
You decide - Essay Example According to the Turkish Cultural Foundation (2011), he obtained a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree on the art of sculpture from Hacettepe University (2005) and completed his PhD with proficiency in arts (2009). Currently, he is based in Ankara mainly specializing in sculpture and video art. The principle message of this artwork is to highlight on the fact that how human made tools, representing science and technology, attempt to mould our natural world in an amusing but thought provoking way. The visual appearance of the artwork is surrealistic and illusive (please see the Appendix). Color combination is most important. The color of wood and other common, dull colors like black and brown gives the clothespin (which acts like a sort of central character) a real life tool. However, its size gives rise to a surrealist impression. The landscape below and around is green, and the background of the park is utterly pleasant. The combination of the clothespin and the crest of green earth gives the visual art a humorous, illusive, yet thought provoking look. As a whole, the presentation appears to be whimsical. But the technical aspects are quite complicated since the artist aims at using the space around the object in a peculiar way. There is only one object in the visual text, but the modeling of the landscape and other parts of the greenery around the artwork cleverly utilize space. In answering the question that how the elements in the image convey the message; we have to recapitulate the message itself. The message emphasizes the fact that human made tools, representing science and technology, attempt to mould our natural world in a funny but thought provoking way. The main object of the visual text, the clothespin, is the most important conveyor of this idea. The clothespin has normal appearance, looks, colors, and shape. However, it has a very big size. This anomaly regarding size shows how humans boast of their